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Are you fed-up with dry skin, break outs or dull looking skin? Or are you wanting to know what you can to do support your general skin health?
Our skin is our largest organ. On average, our skin equates to around 16% of our overall weight. Covering our entire body, it acts as a protective shield against external threats, such as pathogens and environmental pollutants.
Many factors can affect the health of our skin, for example dehydration, low intake of essential fatty acids, high sugar and alcohol intake, weather and certain skin conditions, such as eczema. During the winter months particularly, we start to notice the cold affecting our skin health, with it perhaps becoming dry, cracked and eventually sore, as a result of the harsher temperatures.
Nourishing our bodies with the right nutrients, in sufficient quantities, can be key to supporting our skin health during the winter, as well as all year round.
So what are the key nutrients required for skin health?
Collagen is the most abundant protein in our body, comprising around 25-35% of the body’s protein. Collagen can give skin its integrity and elasticity, with its production reducing with age. Other factors such as smoking, high sugar diet and UV radiation can affect collagen production, as well as potentially damaging collagen. The key amino acid in collagen production is glycine. Dietary sources of glycine include animal protein, egg whites, fish, nuts and seeds. Therefore, a low protein intake can also significant impact collagen synthesis, and therefore overall skin health. Consuming pre-formed collagen from foods such as organic bone broth and supplements containing marine collagen (e.g. sourced from fish), can provide extra support for skin health. Marine collagen, or the well-researched peptan form, mainly consists of type I collagen, which displays high resemblance with human collagen and is easily absorbed through the gut wall.1 Some studies have shown that collagen supplementation, especially one that is rich in type 1 collagen peptides, can improve skin elasticity,2 moisture, 3 and potentially the appearance of wrinkles too.4
Vitamin C is important for collagen synthesis, increasing production by acting as a co-factor for hydroxylase enzymes which produce collagen.5,6 With reduced fruit and vegetable intake being a common theme for the westernised diet, vitamin C intake can often be lacking. Additionally, factors such as stress and smoking can actively deplete vitamin C levels, calling for individuals requirements increasing. Therefore, supplementation could be key, especially to achieve therapeutic levels. Vitamin C is also a powerful antioxidant.7 Antioxidants can prevent and protect against UV damage (e.g. upon exposure to sunlight), which can otherwise have a direct impact on skin health via promoting the breakdown of collagen.8 Other helpful antioxidants include vitamin E, as well as flavonoids such as hesperidin and rutin.
Essential Fatty Acids
Essential fats such as omega 3 and 6 can provide support for skin health via lubrication, supporting sebum production and providing immune protection. Dietary sources of these fats include oily fish, chia and flaxseeds, walnuts and avocados. Low intakes of these foods, which is common in relation to oily fish, can be associated with skin dryness. Supplementation of these essential fats can have beneficial effects on skin health, particularly for those with inflammatory conditions such as eczema9 and psoriasis.10 Specifically, supplementation of borage oil, which is a source of omega 6, can reduce skin inflammation, dryness and itchiness in individuals with eczema.11,12
Zinc can support skin integrity, strengthening the skin’s protective layer.13 It is sometimes referred to as a ‘mineral antioxidant’, due to its ability to reduce inflammation and encourage healing.14 Zinc also plays a role in supporting our immune system, so can be further beneficial for those with allergic type skin conditions, such as eczema, as well as acne or rosacea.15 Dietary sources of zinc include meat, shellfish, beans and pulses and nuts and seeds. Along with vitamin C, zinc likewise acts as a co-factor for collagen synthesis.16
Dry skin? This may be a sign that your skin is lacking hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid is a viscous substance found in different types of connective tissue, like skin and cartilage. It is also found in synovial fluid, helping to lubricate joints, reducing friction. In the skin, hyaluronic acid has a vital protective role in providing hydration.17 It is located in the epidermis (the outermost layer of skin), which is involved in water regulation, controlling the amount of water released from the body. Supplementation of hyaluronic acid can reduce the appearance of wrinkles, with significant improvements in skin lustre and suppleness observed.18 It has been proven especially beneficial at increasing skin moisture for individuals with dry skin.19
If you are wanting to give your skin a bit of a boost, or if you are suffering with dry skin, try to increase these nutrients within your diet where possible, or consider supplementation for an added therapeutic effect.
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1 De Luca C et al. Skin Antiageing and Systemic Redox Effects of Supplementation with Marine
Collagen Peptides and Plant-Derived Antioxidants: A Single-Blind Case-Control Clinical Study. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:4389410.
2 De Luca C, et al. Skin Antiageing and Systemic Redox Effects of Supplementation with Marine Collagen Peptides and Plant-Derived Antioxidants: A Single-Blind Case-Control Clinical Study. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:4389410.
3 Inoue N, Sugihara F, Wang X. Ingestion of bioactive collagen hydrolysates enhance facial skin moisture and elasticity and reduce facial ageing signs in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study. J Sci Food Agric. 2016;96(12):4077-81.
4 Inoue N, Sugihara F, Wang X. Ingestion of bioactive collagen hydrolysates enhance facial skin moisture and elasticity and reduce facial ageing signs in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study. J Sci Food Agric. 2016;96(12):4077-81.
5 Murad et al Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 78(5)
6 Boyera et al. Effect of vitamin C and its derivatives on collagen synthesis and cross-linking by normal human fibroblasts. Int J Cosmet Sci. 1998; 20 (3): 151-8.
7 Bender, D.A. (2011) Water-soluble vitamins. In: Geissler, C. and Powers, H. Human Nutrition. 12th edn. Elsevier, Edinburgh, pp199-224.
8 Jariashvili K et al. UV Damage of Collagen: Insights from Model Collagen Peptides. Biopolymers. 2012;97(3):189-198.
9 Bjørnboe et al. Effect of n-3 fatty acid supplement to patients with atopic dermatitis. J Intern Med Suppl. 1989; 225: 233-6.
10 Mayser, P., Grimm, H., Grimminger,F., n-3 fatty acids in psoriasis. British Journal of Nutrition 2002; 87 Suppl 1: S77-82.
11 Landi G. Oral administration of borage oil in atopic dermatitis. J Appl Cosmetology 1993;11:115–20.
12 Henz, Jablonska, et al (1999), Double-blind, multicentre analysis of the efficacy of borage oil in patients with atopic eczema. British Journal of Dermatology, 140: 685–688.
13 Rostan EF et al. Evidence supporting zinc as an important antioxidant for skin., Int J Dermatol. 2002;41(9):606-11
14 Schwartz et al. Zinc and Skin Health: Overview of Physiology and Pharmacology. Dermatologic Surgery. 2005; 31: 837-47.
15 Gupta M et al. Zinc therapy in dermatology: a review. Dermatol Res Pract. 2014;2014:709152.
16 Boyera et al. Effect of vitamin C and its derivatives on collagen synthesis and cross-linking by normal human fibroblasts. Int J Cosmet Sci. 1998; 20 (3): 151-8.
17 Oe M, et al. Oral hyaluronan relieves knee pain: a review. Nutrition Journal. 2015;15:11.
18 Oe M, et al O. Oral hyaluronan relieves wrinkles: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study over a 12-week period. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2017;10:267-273.
19 Kawada C, et al. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin. Nutrition Journal. 2014;13:70.